Tell me…Do you really pay attention to the Privacy rules online or just pass it as quick as possible?


Do we really have privacy when we go online? Well, there is still a debate about it.  A long time ago when we all have no idea about the Internet, the term of ‘privacy’ can be simpler than it is now. Before the age of the Internet, you stay in your room and watch TV or read a comic book or write a diary without anyone watching you, no one knows what you are doing behind the door. This is called the freedom of a person without surveillance. Time flies till the day Mr. Internet comes and knocks at your door in a very gracious and trendy suit bonus a gentle smile, promises us a bright future.  Apparently, no one can resist him. We invite him in with a big hope. Conversely, we don’t know or maybe we don’t care about ‘those data’ which Mr. Internet brings along with him are extremely dangerous… Those data work like detective; they silently collect our information, our personal material that we provide online, they silently watch us doing things, surfing web. Our online privacy is no privacy at all. When we use social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Myspace… All of the information about us are saved somewhere in the cyberspace and anyone can find or access it. Hence, without cautious, people can easily get involved in serious trouble.


Recently, a fresh wind blows ‘Facebook’ to Iran. To Iranian, Facebook is something related to ‘Freedom’ in their mindset. However, to the Government, Facebook is a mousetrap for dissident, is a tool to help the government control the social and politic of Iran. Consequently, a photographer named Soheil Arabi was imprisoned and punished to death for his offend about the Prophet of Islam by using his Facebook account. (Rigot 2014). This is an example of using social media without cautious, the police can easily find out your information and catches you anytime if you say something sensitive related to Government policy.


Another story that gets in privacy concern is the announcement of changing privacy policy by Google in 2012. Google will add posts from Google Plus and put it into search results. This creates controversy and criticism as people who use Google Plus don’t want or even they don’t know if their post will appear in the search results (Miller, C 2012). By that, everyone can easily search for their information and steal their privacy. To reinforce the idea of privacy, a specific case that happens in Vietnam several years ago, as we all remember Hoang Thuy Linh – Nhat Ky Vang Anh. She has a scandal in 2007 when her boyfriend uploads the sex video clip of them online. It happens 8 years ago but till now, it still has a negative impact on Hoang Thuy Linh career. She is excluded from the music show ‘The Remix’ 2015 because of her scandal in the past (Phu Nu News, 2015).


Optimistically, there are remaining ways for users to protect their online privacy such as using high-quality version of virus protection, setting security policy for their own, blocking pop-ups, creating online firewall, managing cookies and so on (Youn, 2009). However, not many people know how to set up these things as this is the “IT” thing and yes, it’s a complicated process with many steps (Larose & Rifon 2007). How can we request a normal person to create their own network security while they have no idea about it? The debate is on-going.


Larose, R & Rifon, J 2007, ‘Effects of Privacy Warnings and Privacy Seals on Risk Assessment and Online Privacy Behavior’, Journal Of Consumer Affairs, vol.41, iss.1, pp.127–149

Miller, C 2012, ‘Google To Update Privacy Policy to Cover Wider Data Use’, NY Times, viewed on 15th March 2015, <>

Phu Nu News, 2015, ‘Hoang Thuy Linh bi the Remix loai vi scandal khung khiep sau vu clip sex’, Phu Nu News, viewed on 15th March 2015, <>

Rigot, A 2014, ‘Facebook – A double-Edged sword’, Article 19, viewed on 15th March 2015, <>

Youn, S 2009, ‘Determinants of Online Privacy Concern and Its Influence on Privacy Protection Behaviors Among Young Adolescents’, Journal of Consumer Affair, vol.43, iss.3, pp.389–418


Let’s find out…


A brand is not only a product or a service; it is a creation with personality. Thus, branding is the process of creating unique, irreplaceable and strong image for companies, relied on their personalities and identities (Kotler 2009). Branding is an activity that differentiates one seller to other sellers (Kotler. 2009).  Branding helps companies to uphold and expand its position in marketplace, improve economy status. Furthermore, a strong and unique brand reinforces buyers’ decision in decision-making process when they have to choose one product among thousands of other competitive products (Kay, 2006). Thus, the stronger the brand, the more chances of successful the companies will have (State of Queensland, 2014).

According to Dvorak (2010), building a brand is to create a long-term growth and a sustainable growth in order to reinforce the connection between companies and target consumers. Kelley and Jugenheimer (2008) stated that branding is not only showing the company’s name, branding is a developed process of generating brand appearance, brand name, brand awareness and brand personality. In order to successfully build a strong brand, companies should focus on reinforcing brand image, brand awareness and brand personality because these elements differentiate this brand from other brands and these key elements also have big influence on consumer behaviors (Dolak 2005).

Brand Image

According to Dawn Dobni and George M. Zinkhan (1990), brand image is a vital concept which mainly affects consumer behavior. Brand image is the image that stays in consumer perception when one recalls a brand. It is defined as a unique pack of the brand associations that stayed in the mind of target customers (Kelley 2008). In order to strengthen the brand image, the company should concentrate on developing brand associations to create unique trading purpose of the brand.

Brand Awareness

It is the ability that buyers recognize the brand within seeing specific product. Brand awareness roles an important part in supporting advertising dimension and marketing activities (Belch 2009). A higher stage of brand awareness guarantees bigger possibility of brand selection, reinforce consumers loyalty and decreases the influence of competitors in marketplaces. (Kotler, 2009).

Brand Personality

Brand personality is considered as the major feature of identifying the brand. It is the emotional sight that embodies the characters of purchasers (Kelley 2008). Although the brand personality bases on experiences, advertising still has an important role in the process of creating brand personality because it creates interests (Kelley 2008).


Belch, GR & Belch, MA 2009, “Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective”, 8th edn, Mc Graw-Hill, New York.

Belch, GE & Belch, MA 2009, ‘An Introduction to Integrated Marketing Communications’, Advertising and Promotion, 8th edn, McGraw-Hill Irwin, New York, USA

Dolak, D 2005, Building a strong brand: brands and branding basics, viewed 31th March 2014,

Kay, M, J 2006, ‘Strong brands and corporate brands’, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 40, Iss: 7/8, pp.742 – 760.

Kelley, LD & Jugenheimer, DW 2008, “Advertising Media Planning: A Brand Management Approach, 2nd edn, M.E.Sharpe”, United States.

Kotler, P, Armstrong, G, Ang, SH, Leong, SM, Tan CT & Yau OH 2009, Principles of Marketing: A Global Perspective, Pearson, Singapore.

Dvorak, D 2010, “Build Your Own Brand”, Pelican Publishing Company, America.

Dobni, D & Zinkhan, M 1990, ‘In Search Of Brand Image: A Foundation Analysis’, in NA – Advances in Consumer Research, vol. 17, p. 110-119

Understanding of Cognitive Dissonance & Social Cognitive Theories & The application of them to Public Health Campaign (Smoking Kid – Thailand)


 Link to tvc:


Cognitive dissonance theory and social cognitive theory together can be successfully used to deliver message to audience in health campaign, specifically anti-smoking campaign, then these theories may change audience’s attitude and behaviors, especially smokers’ behaviors, however to change behavior, the message has to be persuasive enough to affect audience’s attitude. Mass media is also one important role which supports public health campaign to send out it message (Lorien & Edward 2008). Cognitive dissonance is defined as a process when one receives a message or any information that contradicting to his/her beliefs and attitudes, it leads to the avoidance of obtaining message and the avoidance of behaviors (Severin & Tankard, 2010). Smokers usually avoid or ignore to see or obtain anti-smoking ads, posters or advices because these ways cause dissonance in their beliefs; they believe they can control their health while smoking, so they tend to find way to reduce discomfort-able feelings to achieve consonance (Neal, M 2012). While showing bad consequence of smoking such as lung cancer, dying soon, and black teeth, bad breath, health campaign usually fail to deliver message to smokers maybe because cognitive dissonance is not strong enough to really affect smokers so they tend to ignore. Within using social cognitive, theory of observation and imitation, then applying cognitive dissonance, Thai Health Promotion Foundation has successfully raised awareness of Thai smokers through a campaign called ‘Smoking Kid’ creating by Ogilvy Thai. Cognitive dissonance appears strongly in this campaign because of the appearance of kids with cigarette. Social cognitive applied to highlight the point Kids may imitate smokers to smoke. They also use mass media to spread the message widely. This paper aims to give literature review of two theories and an overview of ‘Smoking kid’ campaign and show how theories are applied to help the campaign achieve success.

Literature review

Cognitive dissonance appears when a person faces a message that conflicts his/her own beliefs, creates discomfort feelings. People tend to reduce dissonance by avoiding or ignoring unfamiliar message that may cause discomfort feeling (Severin & Tankard 2010). However, according to Festinger (1962), the larger the dissonance, the more pressure to decrease it and therefore the more chances for health organization to change audience’s attitude and behaviors. Therefore, the solution is to make sure cognitive dissonance is big enough to influence audiences then it will create bigger pressure for them to reduce it, especially smokers. This way will create success when deliver message in anti-smoking campaign. People tend to selectively seek for familiar message and ignore contradicting one. (Severin & Tankard 2010). However, there is a way to get audience’s attention when delivering uncomfortable message. According to Frey (1976), curiosity is the element that engages audience with unfamiliar message that they tend to avoid or ignore to receive. Selective exposure is used to reduce cognitive dissonance in an effective way (Bryant & Zillman, 2008) and selective attention is used to guide audience to achieve message after reducing dissonance. Emotions and feelings are used to affect audience’s perception; these elements have huge impact on the decision of changing opinions and behaviors/actions in public (Soodan, 2014). Social cognitive theory is defined as one observes and imitates the existing model. After observation stage, behavior can be occurred and shaped (Miller K 2005). Miller stated that imitating bad models, resulting bad behaviors. Kids are naïve and easily to imitate bad behaviors which often produce by adults (Allan Kazdin & Carlo Rotella 2003). The solution is to send message to remind adult that they should be a good image for their children to imitate (Rotella,C 2003).

Media text and theory application

Public communication campaign is defined as a beneficial campaign aimed to influence audience’s attitude and change their behaviors within enormous attempts through communication channels like mass media and through communication actions in a specific time (Atkin & Rice 2012). Public communication campaign is largely used in case of health and social issue. Selective exposure is a concept that one refer to perceive message that reinforces pre-existing beliefs while ignoring opposing or unfamiliar information. Although selective exposure provides useful message and reinforces audience’s knowledge, this element seems to have huge impact on spectators therefore sometimes it leads to failure when delivering message to audience. According to Tan (2012), Asian-Pacific is the region with high number of smokers: 30% of the world’s population. Therefore, anti-smoking campaign is always needed. In the case of anti-smoking campaign, selective exposure appears when smokers tend to avoid and ignore anti-smoking message because they think they can manage their health as good as normal person, threatened ads, posters are not scary at all and bad consequences are vague therefore anti-smoking commercial usually fail to connect with smokers and fail to raise their awareness. Ogilvy in Thailand has known smoker’s perception as they avoid receiving advices of smoking and ignoring seeing threatened ads and posters (The Government and Public Sector Practice, 2014). Ogilvy comes up with a totally new idea, which also creates cognitive dissonance but the bigger dissonance that catch smokers’ attention. Selective attention is used to guide audience (smokers) to achieve the message.

‘Smoking Kid’ Campaign is created when Thai Health promotion Foundation invested in anti-smoking TVC and provided the “Quit line 1600” to help smokers quit smoking and to reduce smoking amount in Thai. However, the number of calls in the Quitline remains low. The idea is to filming kids with cigarette on their hands, going around public streets and asking smokers for a light. This idea is a very creative idea. In adult’s perception, children, kids are naïve and innocent, children must live healthily and play safely. While the action of asking for a light by kids go opposing smokers’ beliefs, it creates cognitive dissonance in their mind (Festinger 1962). However, they cannot avoid the action of the kids; smokers refuse to give the kid a light and start to give the kid advices. They try to reduce discomfort feeling by explaining to the kids instead of ignoring or avoiding. They are accidentally received a message for themselves. “You care for me but why not care for yourself? – Call 1600 – Quit line to stop Smoking” By giving advices for those kids, smokers realize they are the models for those kids to imitate (Rotella, C 2003) and also remind themselves about the bad consequences of smoking. Social cognitive helps to produce the contradiction in smoker’s perception. Smokers usually forget children can imitate them to smoke, social cognitive leads to cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance appears strongly in this campaign because of the appearance of kids with cigarette. Social cognitive applied to highlight the point Kids may imitate smokers to smoke. They smartly apply cognitive dissonance and social cognitive theory, also using mass media to spread the message widely.

The result is outstanding. The video goes viral and creates mirror effect on smokers around the world in an emotional and inspiring way (Neal, M 2012). Online media is used to engage audience around the world. After launching, there are more than five million views on YouTube account and free press coverage in 30 countries. The percentage of calls at “1600 – Quit line” has increased to 40% after the campaign and the campaign raises almost 60% of Thailand population awareness of smoking affect (Wpp 2014). The campaign is successful to deliver message to smokers not only in Thailand but the whole world. Curiosity is created through online communication and because curiosity helps engage audience (Frey 1976) therefore it is a good solution for Thai organization to achieve success. Feelings and emotions are also created when using kids with risky issue like smoking hence reinforcing smokers’ perception.


To sum up, using social cognitive theory and cognitive dissonance efficiently will help public communication campaign to engage with audience and create more chances to gain success. Besides, applying these theories help executives to deeply understand audience’s perception so they can be creative and flexible to execute ideas and works that fit with audience’s mindset. Hence, the campaign may change public attitudes and behaviors based on effective tools and tactic uses. For example, to solve problem from selective exposure, the executives can use social cognitive which creates thoughts, feelings emotionally. Online media makes message go virally and also creates phenomenon curiosity in social norm. The ‘Smoking Kid’ campaign achieves success by effectively using social cognitive and dissonance through certain media channel: YouTube. Individually, I believe any public health campaign can gain success if they use cognitive dissonance theory and social cognitive theory to have deep understanding about their target audience perception then to have the correct message to deliver to them.


Atkin, C & Rice, R 2013, ‘Theory and principles of public communication campaigns’, Public communication campaigns, 4th edn, Business and Ecomonics, SAGE publication, p. 3-20.

Festinger, L 1962, ‘Cognitive dissonance’, Scientific American, vol. 207, is. 4, p. 93-106.

Frey, D & Wicklund, R 1978, ‘A clarification of selective exposure’, Journal of experimental social psychology, vol 78, p. 132-139

Lorien, C & Edward, W 2008, ‘The Effectiveness of Mass Communication to Change Public Behavior’, Annual Review of Public Health, vol.29

Neal, M 2912, ‘Heartbreaking Thai ‘smoking kids’ anti-smoking ad goes viral’, NewYorks Daily News, view 3rd September 2014,

Rotella, C & Kazdin, A 2008, ‘Your kids will imitate you: Use it as a force for good’, The Slate Group Article.

Soodan, V & Jamwal, M 2014, ‘Emotional branding as tool for dissonance reduction: a strategy for competitive advantage’, International monthly refereed Journal of research in Management and Technology, vol. 3, p. 25-32.

Severin, WJ & Tankard, JW 2010, ‘Festinger’s Theory of Cognitive Dissonance’, Communication Theories: Origin, methods, and uses in the mass media, Pearson, p. 142-145.

Tan, D 2012, ‘Smoking in Asia: A looming health Epidemic’, Asian Scientist, viewed 3rd September 2014, <>

The Government & Public Sector Practice, 2014, ‘Viral video prompts smokers to quit’, Wpp, viewed 3rd September 2014, <>

Zillman, D & Bryant, J 2008, ‘Selective Exposure to Communication’, 1st edn, Routledge, p. 11-15

Break The Wall Project – Teaser Production

[Teaser] Break The Wall Project


Title of the teaser: Open your heart and Break your own insensitive wall.

Nowadays the insensitivity becomes a social phenomenon among Vietnamese young adults.

The recent research shows the drama drop on university students’ helpfulness and kindness

to other people’s problems. Moreover, low empathy is directly related to criminal

behaviors, violence and other antisocial behaviors. There are three main reasons that lead

to the insensitivity including the childhood experiences, mass media and society context. As

a result, the young adults build up an invisible wall to defense and protect themselves.

Therefore, this teaser aims to raise the empathy among young adults and to change their

current negative mindset in order to enhance a better life and society’s good will. Moreover,

it also encourages young people to care and help others by taking possible simple actions.

An investigation of Vietnamese Young Adult’s Attitudes toward ‘Digital Billboards’ and ‘Traditional Billboards’ On the Street


This research investigates the attitudes of Vietnamese young adults towards “Billboards” on the street, especially digital billboards. There is not any preceding study done on this topic in Vietnam context therefore this research will offer a better understanding of Vietnamese young Vietnamese adults’ attitudes and perceptions towards “Digital billboards” and “Traditional billboards” on the street. It will also help Vietnamese advertisers and marketers to understand more about billboards’ market in Vietnam and aid further statistics to future research. This research uses quantitative method to conduct a survey in the scale of 100 RMIT Vietnamese students.  The results show that young Vietnamese adults have more positive attitudes towards Digital Billboards than Traditional billboards. Digital billboards bring more brand recall for audiences (this is also a result collected from survey in both genders and majors)


Billboard in general is seen as out-of-home advertising (Taylor 2006). In the aspect of advertising, the appearance of digital billboards lends a hand to reinforce the brand equity and brand image of companies, businesses (Martin & Todorov 2013). Businesses believe digital billboard is one major factor deciding their success because digital billboards directly interact with audiences, attract huge number of observers and create longer attention by its function (than conventional one) (Mulhern 2009 & Todorov 2013). Furthermore, creative digital billboards with meaningful messages can easily catch audience’s attention and undoubtedly get viral (Franke, Bang & Taylor 2003).

On the other hand, some critics discuss that digital billboards annoy viewers’ eyes because of the bright lights and modern effects (Birdsall 2008). However, this is just one point of view; Vietnamese young adult may have different thoughts. Moreover, Vietnam is now considered to be a potential market for businesses to develop billboard advertising, even though businesses have to face government’s regulations about advertising outdoor, they still have ambitious and eager to invest (Thanh Vu 2015). My research aims to review what experts and businesses think about digital and traditional billboards and then examine what Vietnamese young adult think and feel about these billboards.

In this report, the first part I will begin with a literature review along with theories and concepts I use in the whole report. Next I will indicate the methodology which supports this research, it bases on 3 elements: participants, implement and procedure. The third part is my findings and discussion. Lastly, my conclusion will summarize the whole view of this report and expose some important findings then suggest some recommendations for further reports.

Literature Review

Digital Billboards from businesses’ view & experts’ view

Digital billboard seems to be a new trend in billboard advertising these days. Digital billboards are not only advertisements but they are the art on the street with diverse sensations and feelings (Decaux, 2007 & Thompson et all., 1999). It has an amazing function such as colorful lights, technological movements, LED performance, and offers a two-way benefit for both companies and their audiences (Martin & Todorov 2013). Companies have chances to reinforce their brand image and create brand awareness by making people recognize and remember their advertising billboard (Todorov 2013). There is no need to spend too much time on researching specific target audience for Digital billboards advertising because Digital Ads attract huge number of audience; there is no limitation of jobs, genders and ages (Todorov 2013). (Todorov 2013). However, businesses have to make sure that the idea of advertising and the meaning of delivered messages is engaging and creative enough to successfully attract audiences (Mulhern 2009). Nielsen has its advice: The more you understand your customers, the closer step to success you will have.

Digital billboards have a lot of advantages such as attracting new buyers, increasing and pushing sales, having visibility, 24 hours stably existence, bringing brand recall and brand awareness to audience (Taylor & Franke 2003). Creative digital billboard enhances brand recall therefore being creative is also a valuable key which unlocks success for any company (Dyck 2014).

Definition and comparison between traditional billboards and digital billboards

Advertising trend is like fashion, it is changing continuously and dynamically, from origins to modern (Hussain & Nizamani 2011). Digital billboard is one example of advertising trend; it is a transform of traditional billboard. The traditional billboards are non-movement billboards which business use to promote products; these billboards are usually color-printed materials; messages and images are stable (Osbone 2008). Digital billboards are eye-catching, movement billboards with lights and hi-tech function, images and messages change continuously and purposively (Osborne & Coleman 2008). To compare the effectiveness of these two types of billboard, a study has been made and the result shows digital billboard with smart, hi-tech function attract longer attention than conventional one (Birdsall 2008). It also brings more brand recall and pushes more sales than traditional billboard (Taylor & Franke 2003). In the world, “billboards” lobby spends millions of dollars every year on billboards to influence audiences (Hussain & Nizamani 2011). Based on a statistic from EMC outdoor research (2010), more than 2000 digital billboards are rented by American advertising businesses (Ehow, 2015).

Criticism about Digital billboards in some countries

Despite all of the advantages mentioned above, in some studies, digital billboards seem to be ugly, boring, annoyed and create hatred and anger for the citizens (Hussain & Nizamani 2011). Nizamani (2011) explained that citizens are angry and hatred because those digital billboards suddenly come into their eyes sight and they have to pay attention even though they do not want to see it and the process repeat again whenever they are on that road (Hussain & Nizamani 2011). Some ideas seem to be unpleasant with digital billboards; they feel bored. Some people think the lights of digital billboards are too bright, they feel annoyed and get angry about it. Some businesses have problems with technical function or because the chosen materials are not persuasive and creative enough (Messaris 1997). As I mention above, creativity is crucial advertising because it enhances brand recall and creates better visual persuasion (Dyck 2014 & Messaris 1997). For example, Coca-Cola has successful launched a lot of outdoor – interactive billboards based on their creativity and good research of consumer insight such as ‘Hello happiness’ or ‘Share a Coke’ campaign.

Literature gap

There are a huge number of studies about outdoor billboards but most of them come from developed countries such as America, England, Singapore, Hong Kong. There are a small number of studies conducting about outdoor billboards in developing countries, especially digital billboards in Viet Nam. Hence, I suggest doing a research/study to gain more knowledge and to deeply understand about the market of digital billboards in Asia context, chiefly in Viet Nam. To see how people think about this type of advertising and to absorb how people perceive these ads on the street. Vietnamese young adults are the target goal of this study. Their attitudes toward “Billboards” can be the same with American studies or can be different. It may be positive or negative. Therefore, my research question is:

RQ: What do Vietnamese young adult think about billboards on the street? (Traditional and Digital)


This study uses quantitative method to collect the data to answer the research question. This research approach is considered as an objectively systematic process in which allow users to collect numerical data to estimate or measure the trends or the phenomena and produce findings (Crowther and Lancaster 2012). This method is beneficial because it’s effective, flexible and generalizable when we collect data (Donley 2012).


The scale for this research sample is 100 RMIT students.  They are from 18 to 24 years old (M=21, R=6, SD=1.2). 71% of them are females and 29% are males. Participants come from different majors:  46% of them were from Professional Communication, 9% from Business, 14% from Commerce, 12% from Design, 13% from Finance and 6% from other programs. This sampling method is convenient because it helps me to save time and money however there also has its limitation. The scale is quite small but represent for the whole Vietnamese young adults, it can be bias because we cannot make sure participants answer


The tool I use is survey questionnaire, offline survey. Surveys help researchers to collect data from a large size, save time and money also (Schutt 2011). Survey questionnaire also offers a higher possibility of precise statistics (Keyton 2006).

There are 9 questions in my survey. The first 2 questions are about participants’ perception about ‘’Billboards”. The next 4 questions are about their attitudes towards Traditional billboards and Digital billboards. The last 3 questions are about their demographics.


Before I give the final survey to participants, I have done a consultation with my lecturer and I also have done a pre-testing survey with 20 classmates in order to find and fix mistakes. When I finish editing, I go around RMIT campus (cafeteria and labs and student rooms) and ask students around nicely to complete my survey.

After completing collecting data, I used Excel to carry out statistical numbers and facts to answer the research question. Finally, I use charts (column charts and pie chart) to illustrate and clarify the statistics received from the collected data; then, I estimated the data one more time to find out the probable answers for my RQ.

Findings and Discussion


Students in different majors and their decision towards Digital Billboards and Traditional ones


In general, my collected data has shown that the majority of participants tend to pay more attention to Digital Billboards than Traditional Billboards. 88% of participants had interested in Digital outdoor Ads; only 12% chose Traditional outdoor Ads. In detail, the data collected in particular majors also showed the positive attitude of participants toward Digital Billboards.    34% of profcomm students had interested and paid more attention to Digital Billboards than Traditional Billboards. 12% design students had decided Digital Billboards attracted them more than Traditional Billboards. In the sample, 0% design students paid attention to Traditional Billboards. 79% of students (from 6 majors) prefer Digital outdoor Ads, only 21% of students (from all 6 majors) prefer Traditional outdoor Ads.

Different attitudes between Digital Billboards and Traditional Billboards


In the chosen sample, a comparison between Digital billboards and Traditional billboards has been made to see participants’ attitudes towards this type of advertising. As a result, 31% of respondents agreed Digital billboards were entertaining, 59% of them agreed Digital billboards were eye-catching, only 10% felt bored and annoying. Compared to Digital billboards, 50% of respondents felt bored when they saw Traditional billboards while only 5% felt bored when they saw Digital billboards. However, 5% thought Digital outdoor ads were annoying while only 2% of respondents believed traditional ads were annoying.

Differences about remembering the Ads between Digital & Traditional Billboards from both genders


There were 71 females and 29 males participated in this survey. My collected data has shown that 78% of respondents (21% males and 57% females) agreed they remembered Digital billboards they saw on the street more than traditional ads. 22% of respondents (8% male, 14% female) disagreed. However, to compare, there were more male and female agreed that Digital billboards stayed in their mind longer than traditional billboards. (57% females chose Digital ads, only 14% females chose Traditional ads; 21% males chose Digital ads, only 8% of them chose Traditional ads).


In my research, 88% of participants agreed that they pay longer attention to Digital billboards than Traditional billboards when they saw these ads on the street. This result is similar to my literature review that Digital billboards attract longer attention than conventional one (Birdsall 2008).

Moreover, my first finding has shown that 79% of participants from different programs in RMIT agree that Digital billboards are more attractive than Traditional outdoor ads, which is similar to Todorov’s idea from my literature review, he stated that there is no need to spend too much time on researching specific target audience for Digital billboards advertising because Digital Ads attract huge number of audience, there is no limitation of jobs, genders and ages (Todorov 2013). It’s true because I try to survey participants from different majors in school to collect more different thoughts and feels towards “Billboards”, maybe design students and commerce students may think differently. However, the result shows participants in every major prefer Digital outdoor ads.

In the sample, my second finding has indicated that 90% of participants felt Digital billboards were eye-catching and entertaining. This is different to my literature review that digital billboards seem to be boring, annoyed and create hatred and anger for the citizens (Hussain & Nizamani 2011). My research’s result seems more positive than the literature review provided by Hussian & Nizamani (2011).

Lastly, my third finding is very well-connected to my literature review which is said: Digital billboards bring more brand recall and enhance brand recognition in audience perception (Dyck 2014, Taylor & Franke 2003). 78% of participants agreed Digital billboard bring more brand recall, they agreed that they remember the digital outdoor ads more than traditional ones.

I also try to find out if any difference between genders is made through choices of “Traditional” and “Digital” billboards. However, the result is no difference. Both males and females prefer Digital outdoor ads.


My research aims to explore the attitudes of Vietnamese young adults towards Traditional billboards and Digital billboards on the street. The results showed the majority of participants had more positive feeling for Digital billboards than conventional ones. Moreover, I found that almost Vietnamese young adults had positive attitude towards billboards on the street, especially digital billboards. After the research, it was surprising when I found almost everyone prefers Digital billboards even when they were from different majors (profcomm, commerce, design, business, finance…), different genders and also different ages, their attitudes are the same. From my literature review and from the result of my survey, I recommend advertisers and marketers should focus on developing digital billboards market in Viet Nam because: Digital billboards guarantee bringing 99,9% brand recall and enhance brand recognition in audience perception (Franke, Taylor 2003). The more audiences remember your brand, the closer step to success you will have. My research topic is quite clear so I suggest further research should include all of Vietnamese young adults in Vietnam (not only 100 students) in order to have precise statistics and findings.

List of References

Baxter, L & Babbie, E 2003, ‘The Basic of Communication Research’, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, USA, pp.59-60

BirdSall, M 2008, ‘The Debate over Digital Billboards: Can New Technology Inform Drivers without Distracting Them?’, Journal of Institute of Transportation Engineers, vol.78, iss.4, pp.22-27.

Donley, AM 2012, Student Handbook to Sociology: Research Methods, Infobase Publishing, New York, NY, pp. 20-26.

Decaux, JC 2007, “Sensational Billboards in Advertising”, Tectum Publishers, Belgium

Dyck, F 2014, “Advertising Transformed: The New Rules For The Digital Age”, Kogan Page Limited Publication, 1st edn.,  USA, pp.15-53

Ehow, 2015, ‘Digital billboard’, Ehow, viewed on 8th March, 2015, <>

Franke, G & Bang, H & Taylor,C 2006, ‘Use and effectiveness of billboards: Perspectives from Selective-Perception Theory and Retail-Gravity Model’, Journal of advertising, vol. 35, iss. 4, pp.1-35

Hussain, J & Nizamani, R 2011, “Factors Affecting Consumer Attention in Billboards Advertising”, Journal of Management Sciences South Asian, vol.5, no.2, pp.60-64

Keyton, J 2006, Communication research: Asking questions, finding answers, 2nd edn, McGraw Hill, New York, NY.

Schutt, R 2011, Investigating the social world: The process and practice of research, Sage publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Todorov, I & Martin, K 2013 ‘How Will Digital Platforms be Harnessed in 2010, and How Will They Change the Way People Interact with Brands?’, Journal of Interactive Advertising, vol.10, iss.2.

Mulhern, F 2009, ‘Intergreted Marketing Communications: From media channels to Digital Connectivity’, Journal of Marketing Communications, vol.15, iss.2-3, pp.85-101.

Messaris, P 1997, “Visual Persuasion: The Role of Images in Advertising”, Sage Publication, California.

Osborne, A & Coleman, A 2008, “Outdoor advertising recall: A comparison of newer technology & traditional billboards”, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, vol. 30, iss. 1, pp. 13-30.

Taylor, C & Franke, G 2003, “Business Perceptions of the Role of Billboards in the U.S. Economy,” Journal of Advertising Research, pp. 150–161

Thompson, J , Heon, L & Diggs, P 1999, “Billboard – Art On The Road”, Mass Moca Publications, Marshall Street, US.

Thanh Vu 2015, “Đóng bang quảng cáo ngoài trời”, Báo đầu tư Online, viewed on 17th May 2015, <>

Vespe, F 1997, “High-Tech Billboards: The Same Old Litter on a Stick. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing”, vol.16, pp. 176-179



Vietnamese Young Adult Attitudes and Behaviors toward ‘Digital Billboards’ On the Street

My name is Thu Ha and I am from Professional Communication. I am conducting the survey as a part of my assignment for the course COMM2492. You are invited to this survey because you frequently see outdoor billboard advertising. The purpose of this survey is to understand attitudes and behaviors of Vietnamese young adults toward Digital Billboard advertising. By Digital Billboards, I mean Hi-tech billboards with modern function such as colorful lights, technological movements, LED performance, moving image and moving words. Meanwhile, Traditional Billboards are non-movement billboards, stable images and words, color-printed or painted material. Digital and traditional billboards are all large outdoor boards for displaying advertisements.

This survey will take approximately 3 minutes to complete. Your participation in this survey is voluntary and I do not ask for your name. Please answer all the questions according to your own thoughts and experiences. Please use (ü). Thanks for you participation.

  1. Do you often pay attention to Billboards on the street?

¨   Yes                        ¨   No

  1. If yes, what type of billboards do you often pay attention to? (If no, move to 3)

¨   Digital Billboards                        ¨   Traditional Billboards                ¨   Both of them

  1. What do you think about the Digital Billboards on the street?

¨   Annoying             ¨   Eye-catching                   ¨   Entertaining            ¨  Bored

  1. How do you feel when you see a Traditional Billboards on the street?

¨   Bored                   ¨   Eye-catching                   ¨   Entertaining            ¨  Annoying

  1. Which kind of outdoor ads do you pay more attention to?

¨   Digital                  ¨   Traditional

  1. Which kind of outdoor ads do you remember more?

¨   Digital                  ¨   Traditional

  1. What is your biological sex?

¨   Male                     ¨   Female

  1. What is your age?

¨   18                         ¨   19                  ¨   20                    ¨   21                  ¨   22-24

  1. Which majors are you in?

¨Professional communication       ¨Business

¨Commerce                                      ¨Finance

¨Design                                             ¨Others


Cyber issues: Personal Identity & Privacy Online


In the past, with the appearance of Internet, cyber world is a place for people to act-out their own unanswered conflict, to freely express their ideas, views and to comfortably present themselves to the world without fear. Cyberspace creates an opportunity for users to show their other characteristic that they cannot expose in real life (Turkle 1999).

Today, cyber users still freely express their views or opinions by words or images as a habit (from the past) or people even show their personal information on social media so easily without thinking. It is like a habit. People don’t recognize that cyber world now is different from the past. It is not a place for free expression anymore and it is not “privacy” anymore, cyber world now represents both online and offline identity of a person (Warburton 2013 & Turkle 1999). The cyber world has a strong connection with cyber identity. Example, if you post a status to express your view about a social issue and you use bad words, your future boss or new acquaintances may read it and they may see you as an uncivilized person, it surely damages both your online and offline identity, damage your future. This story has happened to some people; the issue is that cyber user posts too many posts and comments on too many topics that they cannot manage it immediately and effectively. It takes at least a day or even a week to find an unwanted post on user’s Facebook account.

With this application, in a jiff, users can manage their privacy and protect their online identity. Kizza(2010) claims that whenever you go online, there is no more privacy.  Now people can judge other people based on cyber lifestyles, they don’t even need to meet the person in real life. Personal identity or personal image can be damaged or even ridiculed through cyber world if people can’t manage their activities online (Kizza 2010 & Larose 2007). The app “………” helps cyber users to manage what they have posted, what they have commented in any type of online platforms in seconds, users only need to type keyword. Example, you remember you have said something really bad but you can’t remember where on your Facebook, you sign in “….” And start typing keyword, it appears on Friday 13th 2010, “F**k Yew”…You find it immediately even it is from 5 years ago, you can delete it or change it a little bit maybe “Food Yew”. No one can judge you now, you can totally be confident for your future’s life and career. The app is very easy to use and do not require complicated “IT” skills. By using this application, you are showing yourself as a civilized citizen. It helps you to enhance your image, protect your identity and create a better intimacy relationship with new acquaintances. Lambert (2013) has said that Facebook now becomes a place for users to search about other people. Facebook shows individual identities and transforms new acquaintance into positively more intimate friendship. People say “I’ll Facebook you” to their new friends because they want to see how is he or she on social network, therefore managing your online identity and protecting it is very important. This app will help users to manage it in a best way, fast and effective also.

Vietnam represents a collectivist culture. Vietnamese people tend to follow the crowd and refer sticking to a group than going alone. Individual rights are secondary; rights of the group take precedence (Samsuri & Ismail 2013). American people are independent. They always manage their online privacy very well and protect their online identity very carefully. On the other side, Vietnamese people are dependent so their attitudes about online privacy are limited; they do not manage their online privacy well and also do not guard their personal identity wisely. This app encourages users to practice managing their online privacy and create a new habit for Vietnamese users as they should use this app to protect their online identity, being a civilized person. The app creates a better future for users in their life and career.


Larose, R & Rifon, J 2007, ‘Effects of Privacy Warnings and Privacy Seals on Risk Assessment and Online Privacy Behavior’, Journal Of Consumer Affairs, vol.41, iss.1, pp.127–149

Samsuri, S, Ismail, Z 2013, Personal Medical Information Management: The Information Privacy Culture of Asian Countries, Journal of Economics, Business and Management, vol.1, No.4.

Kizza, J. M. 2010, ‘ Anonymity, Security, Privacy, and Civil Liberties’ in Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age, 4th edn.,Texts in Computer Science, Springer- Verlag London, USA.

Is the Western accurate and fair in its way of portraying Asia through the lens of media?


From the past till today, between the West and the East, there always exists a gigantic barrier which creates an extensive distance and decrease the fondness for each other. Said (1978) stated that Orientalism process had created some specific image about the Oriental in the Western mindset, the West portray Asia through their scientific studies, researches, media source. By doing so, they would create a bias attitude and wrong perception of the West towards the Oriental. Regardless of all time, mass media has such a huge impact on human being as it informs public, updates information, provides and reports data, facts, strengthen public’s knowledge and even relates to political purpose (Khouri, 1999). Thus it leads to the mistaken perception of the West when trying to deliver the wrong image of Asia through the lens of media. My answer is the Western media is inaccurate and unfair in its way of portraying Asia image. The aim of this paper is to give a deep analysis to answer the above question and give supportive evidences to show the unfairness and inaccurate of the Western media.

Background and Reasons why Western media is unfair and inaccurate:

According to Said (1978), Orientalism was established when Europeans started their journey of colonization; Orientalism was created for European to study and research about Eastern culture and civilization.  The West found that Eastern culture and civilization are quite exotic so they decide to study and research about it, the science of orientalism was created. They found ways to interact with lesser grown countries in the East in order to offer help. They want to civilize the uncivilized world (Eastern countries – Asia). Based on Said’s research (1978), the West believed on what they observed and studied about the East. It leads to the problem that Western people have the same mindset when thinking of Asia however what they think may be distorted or untrue. After World War I, the term of Orientalism move from Europe to USA (Said, 1978). The use of Orientalism is extremely important because it helps Western people to define themselves by defining Orientals. Western people define people from Oriental as silly, lazy, irrational, uncivilized, terroristic, xenophobia, crudeness. Based on that, Western individuals define themselves as smart, elegant, active, logical, civilized, and sophisticated. The Western countries ambitiously desire to guide the East to the exact direction that they want. By that, the West one more time strengthen their mindset that they are better and they always go one step ahead the East. It leads to the concept of Media Imperialism by Tomlinson (2003). He claims that, based on the definition of media imperialism, which is a concept that developed countries negatively affect and have bad, huge impact on smaller nations which leads to the loss of smaller countries’ national identity through mass media, the East cannot define itself, the West enter and help to define the East. Tomlinson (2003) also mentioned about a one-way flow of media products from the West (developed countries) to the East (developing countries) which meant the East received and followed the flow of media from the West. However, this is not true. The East does not follow the West; The East defines themselves based on the own root: “Asian Values”. According to Emmerson (1995), Asian Values contribute to strengthen Asian culture. Asian values emphasize the sovereignty, self-determination of the society, priority for social harmony, hierarchy, loyalty and respect for the Government, communist and collectivist are priority. Asian deserves to be treated equally like Western people. Asian people are hard-working, logical, active, gentle, friendly, and loyal. Asian values help the East to define them and to prove the world that they do not rely on the West. However, in term of the West, they still want to manage and control the East, the West still believe they go one step farther than the East so they think they have power to define the East. The media plays an important role in this world; it delivers message, introduces individual to the whole world, inform public, widen public knowledge of specific affair. Once more time, The West use media to portray image of Asia as the way they want and it is unfair.  It damages Asian reputation and causes sad and hurt for the whole Asia community. Thus to protect the country reputation, some countries create their own boundary and keep distance with the West (Chadha & Kavoori, 2000): China has created gate-keeping policy aiming to limit or prohibit the flow of media productions from the West so they can protect their own national identity and culture. However, the West remains to define the world using mass media, thanks to freedom of speech; they can express their thinking straightforward. This is an unfavorable situation for the East.

Evidence to prove the unfairness, incorrect of the West media to the East:


Dior advertisement:

Photos above are advertisements made by Christian Dior Company before Dior launches its new store in Shanghai. This advertising campaign has caused a lot of controversies. People can see the term of the “superior” western identity in the Dior advertisement (Abraham 2010). Looking closer to the advertisement, we can see the white model is glorified with elegant clothes with blonde hair and professional make up, the white model’s position in the ad is arranged to be in the middle of the photo, become the center of every glance (Yang, 2012). In contrast, Asian women appear with the dowdy, old-fashioned clothes and are placed around the white model. Asian women are identical, same faces, which mean all Chinese women are the same, dowdy, frumpy, unfashionable and Chinese women here in the ads are simply the background for the white model. Dior is the famous brand from France and the way it delivers its image to Asian countries is inaccurate and it leads to many negative opinions that go against Dior. However, Dior’s original message from this advertising campaign is to make Chinese women feel elegant and gorgeous like the West when wearing Dior. The problem is they do not understand clearly about the Chinese culture. This ad is too offensive and it reminds the miserable past with death and famine in the war with French colonization. The West remains to keep in mind that they are superior and civilized than the East; they want to show the power they have through the media.

Avril Lavigne: “Hello Kitty” song:


This is a scene, cutting from Avril Lavigne video music named “Hello Kitty”. As we all know, Hello Kitty represents a part of Japanese popular culture – “Kawaii” tradition. Hello Kitty becomes a phenomenon in 2010, teenagers around the world start to get addicted to collect Kitty stuffs such as skirts, T-shirts, shoes, bags, even scissors, table, cup, pillow, blankets, all in Kitty. Kitty represents for cute, pure and young feature. However, the image of Kitty has been distorted by Avril Lavigne. We can see from the photo above, again, the white singer is in the center of the picture, wearing colorful costumes, trying to act like Japanese. In comparison, Japanese girls are arranged to stand behind and follow the act of the white singer. One more point is that through the whole video, Japanese girls do not have any expression on their faces and they act like robots, they obey and follow Avril Lavigne’s act. According to Duberman (2014), this video is considered as disregarding Asian women, especially Japanese women. Duberman(2014) gives his point of view, he stated that Japanese women are not props, or accessories for any amusement. Asian women are not cute accessories for American to play with. The video of Avril borrows the cute image of Kitty to disregard Asian women.  Avril Lavigne is 29 years old and she sings Hello Kitty songs and acts cute. Some criticizes that she delivers the message that 29-years-old Japanese women usually act cute and dance crazily. This delivers a wrong image and inaccurate information about Japan culture; actually Hello Kitty image is only for kids and teenagers. Avril Lavigne is trying to show the East that she is cool; she understands Japanese culture and does her best job. In fact, this scandal really damages her image and reputation.

Movie: The Interview (2014) – Assassinate Kim Jong-Un


Recently, this movie causes many controversies because of its plot. The Interview is a comedy movie. The scenario of The Interview is built based on a celebrity TV show in America with a host (Franco) and his producer (Rogen). Franco and Rogen have succeed to connect with Kim Jong-Un (North Korean Leader) and they agree to let them interview. Franco and Rogen are assigned a duty: Assassinate Kim Jong-un after having an interview with him. In the movie, Kim Jong-un image is distorted and becoming ridiculous: Kim Jong-Un is a liar, he tells lies about himself and about the economy of the country. In the movie, there is a scene that shows a fruit store and Kim Jong-Un says to Franco and Rogen that North Korea is always prosperous and affluence. In another scene, Franco finds out the Fruit store is fake, all of fruit are made by plastic and cement. In another scene, Kim Jong-Un presents as a dissipated person, play chicks, drink beer, do crazy stuff. Sony Pictures Company has been hacked by unknown hackers and facing terrorist threats before releasing the movie (The Guardian, 2014). North Korea has its first response to the movie, Kim Myong-chol – Director of The Centre for North Korea-US Peace – says the film content is too “dismissive” and the storyline of the movie is so offensive (Goodman, J 2014). Kim Myong-chol also give  his response cleverly and ingeniously. He says that the plot shows the hopelessness of America Government and American public. A film goes around the idea of murdering a foreign leader, this is the same thing that US has done in Afghanistan, Iraq, Ukraine…He also warns President Obama to be careful in case the America military plan to slay him as well. Moreover, when we look closer to the Film poster, there apparently appears unfairness: Franco and Rogen are above with big images while Kim Jong-Un is at the bottom and with small and vague image. Once more time, I want to restate Said’s view (1978) that the West wants to define them as superior and high-civilized.


Personally, I think the best way to avoid damaging others image and identity is to have ‘Respect’.  There also needs to have mutual understanding to ensure an accurate and fair portray of others culture. Showing respect is quite important because it reflects you as a responsible and serious person, reflects your society as a responsible and civilized society. However, the West didn’t really show their respect for the East, they just pretend to be nice; this is a serious problem that needs to be solved in order to bring peace and harmony to Asian countries. In order to make the West show their respect to the East, first thing first, Asian countries must try to strive to become developed countries, conserve and improve traditional and cultural values of the countries. Secondary, in order to receiving respect from the West, Asian countries should inform the West, raise their awareness of how important of Asian Value and Asian culture affect Asian countries. The image below that I find is one specific example, but one is not enough, Asian Governments should plan to make a huge campaign which aims to raise their own voice and gain some respects from the West.


(WordPress, 2013)

Word count: 1922


Abraham, T 2010, ‘Christian Dior slammed over ‘racist’ images designed for Shanghai store launch’, Mail Online, viewed on 31 December 2014, <>

Chadha K., and Kavoori A. 2000, “Media Imperialism Revisited: Some Findings from the Asian Case,” in Media, Culture and Society 22: 415 – 32.

Duberman, A 2014, ‘Avril Lavigne, Asian Women Are not Your Props’, Huffington Post, viewed on 31 December 2014, <>

Emmerson, DK 1995, ‘Singapore and the Asian Values Debate’, Journal of Democracy, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 95 – 105.

Goodman, J 2014, ‘North Korea Regime Already Criticizing ‘The Interview’, Huffington Post, viewed on 31 December 2014, <>

Khouri, R 1999, ‘The Role and Power of Mass Media’, Media and Communication Skills, Passia Seminar, Passia <>

Said, Edward W. 1978, ‘Orientalism’, London: Penguin, pp.1-28

Tomlinson, J. 2003, “Media Imperialism,” in Parks, L. and Kumar, S. (eds.) Planet TV: A Global Television Reader (New York: New York University Press), p. 113 – 34.

The Guardian, 2014, ‘Christmas Release of The Interview Cancelled by Sony’, the Guardian, viewed on 31 December 2014, <>

Yang, J 2012, ‘Why the Rise of Asia in Fashion Isn’t as Beautiful as It Seems’, The Wall Street Journal, viewed on 31 December 2014, <>

Word Press, 2013, ‘Brace Yourselves, Racist Halloween Costumes are coming’, viewed on 31 December 2014, <>